For certain types of immunotherapies, the incidence of adverse events (AEs) such as cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and other immune-related AEs (irAEs) has served to temper excitement related to otherwise promising clinical outcomes. This has prompted the exploration of biomarkers that can be used to predict AE risk both before and during treatment.

Cytokine Expression Signatures
One emergent approach to predicting irAE risk (particularly CRS risk in CAR-T-treated patients) is cytokine gene expression profiling. Evaluating the pattern and timing of fluctuations in cytokine gene expression prior to and over the course of therapy can help to identify at-risk patients.
Germline Genetic Variations
Germline genetic factors can influence autoimmune disease risk. Since these diseases represent common irAEs associated with ICI therapy, it’s imperative to determine how to identify patients who are at risk of developing such complications. It has been shown that germline variants previously associated with autoimmune risk can potentially be used to evaluate susceptibility to irAEs in ICI-treated patients (Kirchhoff et al., 2017). Via germline variant reporting, ImmunoID NeXT can be leveraged to discover germline variants and variation signatures associated with AE risk.
Predictive Biomarkers of AE Risk
CategoryImmunoID NeXT Solutions
Cytokine expression signatures
  • Cytokine gene expression profiling
  • Inter-/intra-cohort differential gene expression analysis
Germline genetic variations
  • Germline variant analysis
Signature(s) identification
  • Advanced analysis for potential signature identification